Last updated on: 2/6/2013 5:48:43 PM PST | Author: ProCon.org

James A. Garfield Biography

Title:
20th President of the United States
Position:
Con to the question "Should Churches (Defined as Churches, Temples, Mosques, Synagogues, etc.) Remain Tax-Exempt?"
Reasoning:

“The divorce between Church and State ought to be absolute. It ought to be so absolute that no Church property anywhere, in any state or in the nation, should be exempt from equal taxation; for if you exempt the property of any church organization, to that extent you impose a tax upon the whole community.”

US Congressional Record, US Department of State “InfoUSA” website, 1874

Theoretical Expertise Ranking:
Experts
Individuals with JDs, PhDs, or equivalent advanced degrees in fields relevant to churches and taxes. Also top-level government officials (such as foreign leaders, US presidents, Founding Fathers, Supreme Court Justices, members of legislative bodies, cabinet members, military leaders, etc.) with positions relevant to the churches and taxes issue.
Involvement and Affiliations:
  • 20th President of the United States, Mar. 4, 1881-Sep. 19, 1881
  • Elected to the US Senate (R-OH), 1880
  • Recognized as the ranking House Republican, 1878
  • Chairman, US House Committee on Appropriations, 1871-1875
  • Chairman, US House Committee on Banking and Currency, 1869-1871
  • Chairman, US House Committee on Military Affairs, 1867-1869
  • US House Representative (R-OH), 1862-1880
  • Lieutenant Colonol, Brigadier General, and Major General of Volunteers, American Civil War
  • Elected to the Ohio State Senate as a Republican, 1859
  • Passed Ohio bar exams, 1861
  • President and Classics Professor, Western Reserve Eclectic Institute (later Hiram College), Hiram, OH, 1850s
  • Former part-time teacher, carpenter, and janitor
  • Former canal boat team driver
  • Education:
  • Graduated, Williams College, MA, 1856
  • Attended Western Reserve Eclectic Institute (later Hiram College), Hiram, OH, 1851-1854
  • Attended Geauga Academy, Chester, OH, 1849-1850
  • Contact Info:
    Phone
    None found
    Email
    None found
    Website
    None found
    Other:
  • Full name is James Abram Garfield
  • Died from infection and internal hemorrhage in Elberon, NJ on Sep. 19, 1881 after being shot by an assassin in Washington, DC on July 2, 1881
  • Had five children
  • Married Lucretia Rudolph (“Crete”), Nov. 1858
  • Born in Orange Township, Cuyahoga County, OH on Nov. 19, 1831
  • “The youngest of five children born on a poor farm on the outskirts of Cleveland, Ohio, Garfield is perhaps the poorest man ever to have become President… Since Garfield was struck down four months into his term, historians can only speculate as to what his presidency might have been like. Garfield was assassinated by Charles Julius Guiteau, an emotionally disturbed man who had failed to gain an appointment in Garfield’s administration… Had Garfield served his term, historians speculate that he would have been determined to move toward civil service reform and carry on in the clean government tradition of President [Rutherford B.] Hayes. He also supported education for black southerners and called for African American suffrage, as he stressed in his inaugural address.”
    “American President: James Abram Garfield: A Life in Brief,” Miller Center at the University of Virginia website (accessed Jan. 10, 2013)
  • Quoted in:
    Should Churches (Defined as Churches, Temples, Mosques, Synagogues, etc.) Remain Tax-Exempt? – Pro & Con Quotes